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Wee Loo Kang; Fremont Teng; Fu-Kwun Hwang

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SLS Transformers [Sec Phy][2023]

Sample Learning Goals

[REVISED SYLLABUS] This lesson is for Upper Secondary students taking Physics or Science (Physics) at Express or Normal Academic level [G3 Physics, G3 Science (Physics) or G2 Science (Physics)] for the 2023 syllabuses 
 You should have an understanding of the following:
  • laws of electromagnetic induction
  • how a simple alternating current generator works
By the end of this lesson, you should be able to:  
  • describe the structure and principle of operation of a simple iron-cored transformer as used for voltage transformations
  • recall and apply the equations Vp / Vs = Np / Ns and VIp = VIs to new situations or to solve related problems (for an ideal transformer)
  • describe the energy loss in cables and deduce the advantages of high voltage transmission.

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Title: Unveiling the Magic of Transformers: Exploring Step-Up and Step-Down Simulations



Transformers are marvels of engineering that play a crucial role in power distribution networks worldwide. These devices allow us to efficiently step up or step down voltage levels, facilitating the transmission and distribution of electrical energy over long distances with minimal losses. In this blog, we'll embark on a journey to unravel the inner workings of transformers through step-up and step-down simulations.


Understanding Transformers:

Before delving into simulations, let's grasp the fundamentals of transformers. At their core, transformers consist of two coils of wire, known as the primary and secondary coils, wound around a core made of ferromagnetic material. When an alternating current (AC) flows through the primary coil, it induces a changing magnetic field in the core, which, in turn, induces a voltage in the secondary coil through electromagnetic induction.


Step-Up Transformer Simulation:

In a step-up transformer, the secondary coil has more turns than the primary coil, resulting in a higher output voltage compared to the input voltage. To visualize this process, we'll explore a simulation where you can adjust parameters such as the number of turns in the primary and secondary coils, input voltage, and frequency. By increasing the turns ratio, you'll observe how the output voltage increases proportionally, demonstrating the principle of step-up transformation.


Step-Down Transformer Simulation:

Conversely, in a step-down transformer, the secondary coil has fewer turns than the primary coil, leading to a lower output voltage compared to the input voltage. Through another simulation, you'll have the opportunity to manipulate parameters and witness the step-down transformation in action. By decreasing the turns ratio, you'll observe a decrease in the output voltage relative to the input voltage, highlighting the versatility of transformers in adapting voltage levels to meet specific requirements.


Real-World Applications:

The applications of step-up and step-down transformers are widespread across various industries and sectors. Step-up transformers are indispensable in power generation stations, where they elevate the voltage for efficient long-distance transmission over power lines. Step-down transformers, on the other hand, are ubiquitous in residential and commercial settings, reducing high-voltage electricity from the grid to safer levels suitable for household appliances.



Transformers are indispensable components of modern electrical systems, enabling the efficient transmission and utilization of electrical energy. Through step-up and step-down simulations, we've gained valuable insights into the transformative power of these devices, illustrating their versatility and importance in our daily lives. As we continue to innovate and advance in the field of electrical engineering, transformers will undoubtedly remain at the forefront, empowering the world with reliable and sustainable energy solutions.







SLS lesson


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