http://weelookang.blogspot.sg/2010/06/ejsopensourcealternatingcurrent.html Ejs Open Source Alternating Current Generator Model Java Applet ( AC Generator ) author: fukwun hwang and lookang https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/44365627/lookangEJSS/export/ejs_model_ACgenerator07.jar https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/44365627/lookangEJSworkspace/export/ejs_users_sgeducation_lookang_ACgenerator07.jar 
« on: October 29, 2009, 06:02:15 PM » posted from:Singapore,,Singapore
Ejs Open Source Alternative Current Electrical Generator Model
AC generator appletThis model is created using open source physics and Easy Java Simulations (EJS) version 4.2 authoring and modeling tool. (Ejs) and the community using Ejs to enable inquiry learning.
The Alternating Current Electrical Generator Model was created by lookang.
I would like to thank FuKwun Hwang, Wolfgang Christian & Anne Cox for sharing their source codes so that i could learn and accelerate the creation of this learning environment.
Alternating Current Electrical
Generator Model in external magnetic field Bz direction and a
rotating coil with mechanical rotating handle, brush and slip
rings.
Alternating Current Electrical Generator Model
Description:
Electric generators turn motion into alternatingcurrent electric power by exploiting electromagnetic induction. This AC generator consists of 2 pole magnets and a wire (usually a very long one that's wrapped to form several coils and known as an armature or coil). A hydraulic engine or some other outside source of motion (This applet has a handle bar for you to rotate) moves the wire or armature through the external magnetic field created by the magnetsWhen a wire passes through an external magnetic field, it causes electrons in that wire to move together in one direction. The current in the wire produce a magnetic field around the wire. The 2 different magnetic fields interact with each other results in a voltage (emf) to be "induced" in the coil. This motion of the electrons in the loop that is placed in a magnetic field is caused by a motional electromagnetic force (emf).
A simple alternating current (AC) generator is illustrated here. ABCD is mounted on an axle PQ. The ends of the wire of the loop are connected to 2 brushes contacting two slip rings continuously at position X & Y. Two carbon brushes are made to press lightly against the slip rings.
The key to producing motional emf is in change in the magnetic flux experienced by the coil loop.
In the case when an outside handle bar is rotating at
\theta (t) = 0.5 t
the coil is spinning at a constant rate of angular velocity
\omega(t) = 0.5 rad/s
within an external magnetic field. Because it is always moving
through the magnetic field, a current is sustained but always
varying. But, because the coil is spinning, it's moving across the
magnetic field first in one direction and then in the other, which
means that the flow of electrons keeps changing. Because the
electrons flow first in one direction and in the other, the
generator produces an alternating current.Definition:
Faraday's law states the induced emf in a coil is equal to the negative of the rate of change of magnetic flux times the number of turns in the coil. The induced electromotive force or emf, \epsilon in any closed circuit is equal to the rate of change of the magnetic flux , \Phi through the circuit.
\epsilon = \frac {\delta
\Phi}{\delta t}
Where \Phi = NBAcos(B ∧A)
\epsilon is the magnitude of
the electromotive force (emf) in volts\Phi is the magnetic flux through the circuit (in Weber).
N is the number of turns of wire in
the loop
B is the magnetic field
A is area of coil
Angle B ∧A is the angle between vector magnetic field and vector perpendicular to the area
Lenz's law states an induced current is always in such a direction as to oppose the motion or change causing it.The law provides a physical interpretation of the choice of sign in Faraday's law of induction, indicating that the induced emf and the change in flux have opposite signs. The the polarity of the induced emf is such that it produces a current whose magnetic field opposes the change which produces it
Apply Faraday's law and Lenz's law to the simulation model:
For the case of a rotating loop,
From earlier equation as
The physical setup of B_{z} and normal vector of area A when t = 0 s, such that angle B ∧A = ( \theta + \frac{\pi}{2} ).
To derive an expression for the induced emf across the slip rings when the coil is spun at an angular frequency, \omega, knowing \theta = \omega t
which the equation used by the custom function
When mechanical energy is used to rotate the loop, the armature induced an emf described by the right hand rule. The induced emf in a coil is equal to the negative of the rate of change of magnetic flux times the number of turns in the coil.
Use the rotating handle function input field \theta (t) = _________ to see what happens when the rotating handle cranks the loop in the Bz magnetic field. The checkbox current flow & electron flow allow different visualization since I = \frac{\delta Q}{\delta t} = I and Q= number of charge*e. The Play & Pause button allows freezing the 3D view for visualizing these induced currents and for checking for consistency with the right hand rule.
When the rotating handle is moved by the input field \theta (t) = 2t θ(t)= 2*t , induced current runs through ABCD (select the checkbox labels?) in a manner described by
Interpretation of graphs of \epsilon versus t
If
which is the modelled equation.
if N = 1, B = 2x10^{6} T, A = (1.5)(1.5) m^{2}, R = 1 \Omega
therefore,
Interpretation of graphs of Φ versus t
Since
You can examine and modify this compiled EJS model if you run the model (double click on the model's jar file), rightclick within a plot, and select "Open EJS Model" from the popup menu. You must, of course, have EJS installed on your computer. Information about EJS is available at: <http://www.um.es/fem/Ejs/> and in the OSP comPADRE collection <http://www.compadre.org/OSP/>.
.
12 What can you conclude about the directions of the magnetic field exerted by the magnets?
13 The external magnetic field Bz can be varied using the slider Bz. When Bz is positive, it is in the direction vertically up. Vary Bz until it is negative, what is the direction of the Bz then?
Using default starting values of the simulation, play the simulation until at θ = 0 degree again at t > 0.0 s
What is the direction of the current flow in wire AB?
After conducting some inquiry learning and examining the 3D view of the model on the virtual AC generator model discuss how this induced emf can be measured. You may rightclick within a plot, and select "Open EJS Model" from the popup menu to examine the model equations of the motion. You must, of course, have EJS installed on your computer.
Describe the action of the slip rings of the AC generator. Suggest the effect of adding a softiron cylinder in the winding the coil.
Advanced Learner:
Please submit your remix model that model features that are not available in the existing virtual lab and share your model with the world through NTNUJAVA Virtual Physics Laboratory http://www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw/ntnujava/index.php?board=28.0. Impacting the world with your model now.
Lecture note on Ac Generator in JC
16.7 Simple Applications of EM Induction
16.7.1 A.C. Generators
Alternating current (a.c.) generators are devices that convert mechanical energy to electrical energy. In its simplest form, it consists of a loop of wire rotated by some external means in a magnetic field (as shown in the diagram below). In commercial power plants, the energy required to rotate the loop can be derived from a variety of sources (e.g. for hydroelectric plant, falling water is directed against the blades of a turbine to produce the rotary motion).
• The magnitude of the e.m.f. is given by:
If the coil is turning at a constant rate, then θ = ω.t where ω = the angular frequency.
Note:
• The maximum magnitude of the e.m.f. is equal to when the coil is parallel to the field B ( vector A is 90 deg to notes θ) which in the applet case are angle θ = 0 and 180 deg but the notes θ = 90 and 270 deg
2 made some adjustment to the equations to reflect the flux correctly http://www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw/ntnujava/index.php?topic=915.msg4942#msg4942
3 remove DC motor parts
4 added AC generator parts
5 adapted from the way the loop coil in drawn http://www.compadre.org/OSP/items/detail.cfm?ID=9218&Attached=1
6 adapted useful components of http://www.compadre.org/OSP/items/detail.cfm?ID=9218&Attached=1 like plot and the calculation for flux and current
7 readapt to the magnetic field B in z direction which took a lot of effort to rethink the physics laws
8 adjusted the equations to reflect the physics for my model
9 added new equation flux = NBA*cos(B&A) instead of the older equation
10 added N number of loops slider
11 added lengthx and lengthz slider to promote inquiry learning of physics phenomena
12 added the ammeter group from http://www.compadre.org/OSP/items/detail.cfm?ID=9218&Attached=1
13 customized the particles to work even with lengthx and lengthz
14 current particles motion particles velocity now are smaller for cases for N=7
15 modified equation to reflect the equation of induced emf = N*B*A* cos(B&A) = IR
16 direction of motion obeys v = omegas*lengthz/2;
17 particles in ABCD are good with proper initialization
18 moved the handle group to the other side to simulate handle being cranked
19 added resistor into the simulation
20 adding description
21 adding exercises
17 june 2010
22 read with error in E:\EJS_4.3.0_100613\EJS_4.3.0 but no error in E:\EJS_4.2.7_100314\EJS_4.2.7\
23 continuing improvement on EJS_4.2.7_100314\EJS_4.2.7\
24 made the connection between rotating handle and coil match the length of the coil and lengthx changes
25 made width = 600 to fit blog post http://sgeducation.blogspot.com/2010/06/ejsopensourcealternatingcurrent.html
26 made some color scheme changes to background
to do
add flux,emf vs angle to plot
add visualization of flux on main drawing http://www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw/ntnujava/index.php?topic=915.msg3437#msg3437
B is the magnetic field
A is area of coil
Angle B ∧A is the angle between vector magnetic field and vector perpendicular to the area
Lenz's law states an induced current is always in such a direction as to oppose the motion or change causing it.The law provides a physical interpretation of the choice of sign in Faraday's law of induction, indicating that the induced emf and the change in flux have opposite signs. The the polarity of the induced emf is such that it produces a current whose magnetic field opposes the change which produces it
\epsilon = \frac {\delta
\Phi}{\delta t}
Apply Faraday's law and Lenz's law to the simulation model:
For the case of a rotating loop,
\epsilon = \frac {\delta
\Phi}{\delta t}
From earlier equation as
\Phi = NBAcos(B ∧A)
\epsilon = \frac
{NBAcos(B ∧ A)}{\delta t}
The physical setup of B_{z} and normal vector of area A when t = 0 s, such that angle B ∧A = ( \theta + \frac{\pi}{2} ).
And taking out the constants from the differential equation,
From mathematical trigonometry identity,
\epsilon = \frac {NBA \delta
cos(\theta + \frac{\pi}{2})}{\delta t}
cos(\theta + \frac{\pi}{2}) = 
sin ( \theta )
\epsilon = \frac
{NBA \delta (  sin(\theta )}{\delta t}
To derive an expression for the induced emf across the slip rings when the coil is spun at an angular frequency, \omega, knowing \theta = \omega t
\epsilon = NBA \frac { \delta
(  sin(\omega t )}{\delta t}
\epsilon = NBA \frac { \delta (
sin(\theta )}{\delta t}
which the equation used by the custom function
getCurrent () = \frac { \delta
( sin(\theta )}{\delta t}
When a closed circuit in connected to the rotating loop, using
Ohm's law
which the equation used by the simulation model
\epsilon = NBA \frac { \delta
( sin(\theta )}{\delta t} = IR
When mechanical energy is used to rotate the loop, the armature induced an emf described by the right hand rule. The induced emf in a coil is equal to the negative of the rate of change of magnetic flux times the number of turns in the coil.
Use the rotating handle function input field \theta (t) = _________ to see what happens when the rotating handle cranks the loop in the Bz magnetic field. The checkbox current flow & electron flow allow different visualization since I = \frac{\delta Q}{\delta t} = I and Q= number of charge*e. The Play & Pause button allows freezing the 3D view for visualizing these induced currents and for checking for consistency with the right hand rule.
When the rotating handle is moved by the input field \theta (t) = 2t θ(t)= 2*t , induced current runs through ABCD (select the checkbox labels?) in a manner described by
\epsilon = NBA \omega
cos(\omega t ) = IR
Interpretation of graphs of \epsilon versus t
If
\theta (t) = 2t
imply
2 = \omega
\frac{\epsilon}{R} = \frac{NBA
\omega cos(\omega t )}{R}= I
which is the modelled equation.
if N = 1, B = 2x10^{6} T, A = (1.5)(1.5) m^{2}, R = 1 \Omega
\frac{\epsilon}{1} =
\frac{(1)(2x10^{6})(1.5x1.5) (2) cos(2 t )}{1} = I
therefore,
\epsilon = 9x10^{6}cos(2 t ) =
I
Interpretation of graphs of Φ versus t
Since
\epsilon =  \frac {\delta
\Phi}{\delta t}
Therefore,
9x10^{6}cos(2 t )
= \frac {\delta \Phi}{\delta t}
\int 9x10^{6}cos(2 t ) \delta
t= \Phi
4.5x10^{6}sin(2 t ) =
\Phi
Credits:
The Alternating Current Electrical Generator Model was created by FuKwun Hwang and Loo Kang WEE with contributions of open source codes from FuKwun Hwang, Wolfgang Christian & Anne Cox using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) version 4.2 authoring and modeling tool. An applet version of this model is available on the NTNU website < http://www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw/ntnujava/ >.You can examine and modify this compiled EJS model if you run the model (double click on the model's jar file), rightclick within a plot, and select "Open EJS Model" from the popup menu. You must, of course, have EJS installed on your computer. Information about EJS is available at: <http://www.um.es/fem/Ejs/> and in the OSP comPADRE collection <http://www.compadre.org/OSP/>.
.
Exercises:
Engage:
Question: Given the context of global energy crisis, fossil
fuel as primary source of energy and its effects of global
warming, are you aware of any alternative energy source?
Possible student responses: Many students probably already
know of clean energy and able to verbally mention some of them
such as wind and wave energy.
Answer: Yes! Wind energy and wave energy are examples of
energy sources that convert mechanical sources of energy and
convert it to electrical energy. Later, we will demonstrate a
way to convert human mechanical energy in the form of rotating
an axle to rotate a coil so as to get electrical energy.
A real live demo is best.
Figure of a Real Life Demo Set by AddeStation Dr KC Tan
Explore
1. Explore the simulation; this simulation is designed as an electric generator that turns motion into alternatingcurrent electric power by exploiting electromagnetic induction. This AC generator model consists of 2 pole magnets and a wire (usually a very long one that's wrapped to form several coils and known as an armature or coil). A hydraulic engine or some other outside source of motion (This applet has a handle bar for you to rotate) moves the wire or armature through the external magnetic field created by the magnets.
2 The play button runs the simulation, click it again to pause and the reset button brings the simulation back to its original state.
3 by default values Bz, Lengthx, Lengthz, N, R, ϑ = 6.2831*t play the simulation. Notice ϑ = 6.2831*t is the angular displacement function of the handle bar. The wire is in a rotation motion and the galvanometer display the induced current in the AC generator. What is the physics principle simulated here.
Hint: Faraday's law
4 reset the simulation.
5 using the default values (Bz, Lengthx, Lengthz, N, R,), adjust the value of ϑ = 1*t play the simulation. What did you observe? Explain the motion in terms of the ϑ, ω
6 explore the slider Bz. what do this slider control?
7 explore the slider Lengthx. What does this slider control?
1. Explore the simulation; this simulation is designed as an electric generator that turns motion into alternatingcurrent electric power by exploiting electromagnetic induction. This AC generator model consists of 2 pole magnets and a wire (usually a very long one that's wrapped to form several coils and known as an armature or coil). A hydraulic engine or some other outside source of motion (This applet has a handle bar for you to rotate) moves the wire or armature through the external magnetic field created by the magnets.
2 The play button runs the simulation, click it again to pause and the reset button brings the simulation back to its original state.
3 by default values Bz, Lengthx, Lengthz, N, R, ϑ = 6.2831*t play the simulation. Notice ϑ = 6.2831*t is the angular displacement function of the handle bar. The wire is in a rotation motion and the galvanometer display the induced current in the AC generator. What is the physics principle simulated here.
Hint: Faraday's law
4 reset the simulation.
5 using the default values (Bz, Lengthx, Lengthz, N, R,), adjust the value of ϑ = 1*t play the simulation. What did you observe? Explain the motion in terms of the ϑ, ω
6 explore the slider Bz. what do this slider control?
7 explore the slider Lengthx. What does this slider control?
8 explore the slider Lengthz. What does this slider control?
9 together a variable called A is defined as Lengthx*Lengthz, suggest a suitable meaning for A.
9 together a variable called A is defined as Lengthx*Lengthz, suggest a suitable meaning for A.
10 by leaving the cursor on the slider, tips will appear to
give a description of the slider. You can try it the following
sliders such as the N, R, t, Φ ,
ε , i, v.
11 record down the names of the variables and its meaning from the tips.
11 record down the names of the variables and its meaning from the tips.
9 there are some value of time of simulation t and the
checkbox graph for height vs time.
10 vary the simulation and get a sense of what it does.
10 vary the simulation and get a sense of what it does.
11 There is an external magnet with the poles as setup
in the z axis direction.
What are the magnetic poles when Bz is positive?
What are the magnetic poles when Bz is positive?
Top:
Bottom: 
12 What can you conclude about the directions of the magnetic field exerted by the magnets?
hint: the magnetic field vectors comes out from which pole
when view from outside the magnet.

13 The external magnetic field Bz can be varied using the slider Bz. When Bz is positive, it is in the direction vertically up. Vary Bz until it is negative, what is the direction of the Bz then?

Evaluate:
14 Input into the input field θ(t) = __6.2832*t___
When θ = 0^{o} What is amount of magnetic flux Φ passing through the area of the coil loop is zero Wb.
15 Step the simulation by dt, take note of the new value of the θ and the new Φ reading. By calculating d(Φ)/ dt, at this instant in time. Think of a way, to collect the data to fill in the following table.
When θ = 0^{o} What is amount of magnetic flux Φ passing through the area of the coil loop is zero Wb.
15 Step the simulation by dt, take note of the new value of the θ and the new Φ reading. By calculating d(Φ)/ dt, at this instant in time. Think of a way, to collect the data to fill in the following table.
θ / deg.

t / s

Φ / Wb

d(Φ)/ dt / Wb/s

to be read from the graph
ε / V 
i / A 
0






18






36






54






72






90






108






126






144






162






180






198






216






234






252






270






288






306






324






342






Select the Checkbox "Show Graph" and record down the value of
the emf ε. Suggest a relationship between emf ε and the
variables in the table. Collect more data to fill in the table
if need.
Elaborate:
Elaborate:
16 The following passage (just an example) aims to aid
learners describe a simple form of a.c.
generator (rotating coil or rotating magnet) and the use of
slip rings (where needed)
When a coil is _______________ between the poles of the ___________, its wires cut through the _______________ causing an induced emf to be generate which causes a ____________ to flow if there is a closed electrical path circuit.
The _________ and ______________ of the induced current _____________ as the coil rotates. This is the basic principle behind the simple AC generator.
(c) Sketch a graph of voltage output against time for a simple a.c. generator
When a coil is _______________ between the poles of the ___________, its wires cut through the _______________ causing an induced emf to be generate which causes a ____________ to flow if there is a closed electrical path circuit.
The _________ and ______________ of the induced current _____________ as the coil rotates. This is the basic principle behind the simple AC generator.
(c) Sketch a graph of voltage output against time for a simple a.c. generator
Using default starting values of the simulation, play the simulation until at θ = 0 degree again at t > 0.0 s
What is the direction of the current flow in wire AB?
What is the direction of the current flow in wire CD?
using Fleming's lefthand rule, deduce the relative directions
of force acting on
i)
AB
ii)
CD
iii)
BC
iv)
DA.
Hint: note that F_{mag} = I*B*L*sin(I&B) may
be useful.
By taking moments about the axle PQ, consider the forces on AB and CD, deduce the direction of the torque T and the motion if the coil loop was initially at rest (ω = 0 deg/s). Select the suitable sliders of your choice and verify your hypothesis for 2 angles.
By taking moments about the axle PQ, consider the forces on AB and CD, deduce the direction of the torque T and the motion if the coil loop was initially at rest (ω = 0 deg/s). Select the suitable sliders of your choice and verify your hypothesis for 2 angles.
Discuss with your partner what you have discovered.
Ask your teacher if there are any problem/issues faced using
this virtual lab.
Explain and show the equations involving T ( in earlier part of question), why the forces on wire BC and DA did not contribute to the calculation of rotating torque about axle PQ?
By considering the forces in the x direction for wire BC and DA, suggest what can happen to the coil loop if the forces are large enough. Suggest why it does not happen in terms of the properties of the wires in the coil loop.
Explain how a rotating coil in a magnetic field experiences a change in magnetic flux linkage and the induced emf.
Explain and show the equations involving T ( in earlier part of question), why the forces on wire BC and DA did not contribute to the calculation of rotating torque about axle PQ?
By considering the forces in the x direction for wire BC and DA, suggest what can happen to the coil loop if the forces are large enough. Suggest why it does not happen in terms of the properties of the wires in the coil loop.
Explain how a rotating coil in a magnetic field experiences a change in magnetic flux linkage and the induced emf.
What is the effect on the induced emf by increasing
(i)
the number of turns on the coil, N
(ii)
the angular velocity, ω
(iii)
the magnitude of the external Bz field.
After conducting some inquiry learning and examining the 3D view of the model on the virtual AC generator model discuss how this induced emf can be measured. You may rightclick within a plot, and select "Open EJS Model" from the popup menu to examine the model equations of the motion. You must, of course, have EJS installed on your computer.
Describe the action of the slip rings of the AC generator. Suggest the effect of adding a softiron cylinder in the winding the coil.
Advanced Learner:
Please submit your remix model that model features that are not available in the existing virtual lab and share your model with the world through NTNUJAVA Virtual Physics Laboratory http://www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw/ntnujava/index.php?board=28.0. Impacting the world with your model now.
Lecture note on Ac Generator in JC
16.7 Simple Applications of EM Induction
16.7.1 A.C. Generators
Alternating current (a.c.) generators are devices that convert mechanical energy to electrical energy. In its simplest form, it consists of a loop of wire rotated by some external means in a magnetic field (as shown in the diagram below). In commercial power plants, the energy required to rotate the loop can be derived from a variety of sources (e.g. for hydroelectric plant, falling water is directed against the blades of a turbine to produce the rotary motion).
figure of AC generator with Bz vertical up and the angle θ=18
deg here is the angle of coil wrt to the z axis
vector area A is therefore in this case, angle θ+90
therefore the angle θ (notes) below
is angle θ+90
therefore, the θ here in the picture is angle θ+90
Screenshot
of the AC Generator Simulation Model by (F.K.
Hwang & Wee, 2009)
Figure
of Reallife AC customized demonstration set by Scientist
Dr Tan Kah Chye (2010)
• As the wire loop rotates, its magnetic flux linkage changes
with time. By Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction, this
will induce an e.m.f. and a current in the loop. The ends of
the loop are connected to slip rings that rotate with the
loop. Connections from these slip rings, which act as output
terminals of the generator, to the external circuit are made
by stationary brushes in contact with the slip rings.
• The magnitude of the e.m.f. is given by:
For the case of a rotating loop,
ε =  d(Φ)/ dt
From earlier equation as Φ = N.B.A cos (
B&A)
ε =  d(N.B.A cos ( B&A))/ dt
The physical setup of Bz and normal
vector of area A when t = 0 s, such that angle B&A =
( θ + π/2 ).
And taking out the constants from the differential equation,
ε =  N.B.A d( cos ( θ + π/2 )/ dt
From mathematical trigonometry identity, cos ( θ + π/2) = sin ( θ )
ε =  N.B.A d(sin ( θ )/ dt
To derive an expression for the induced emf across the slip
rings when the coil is spun at an angular frequency, ω,
knowing θ = ω.t
ε =  N.B.A d(sin ( ω.t )/ dt )
ε = N.B.A d( sin ( θ )/ dt
) which the equation used by the
custom function getCurrent
() = d( sin
( θ )/ dt )
When a closed circuit in connected to the rotating loop,
using Ohm's law
ε = N.B.A.d( sin ( θ )/ dt ) = I.R which
the equation used by the simulation model
If the coil is turning at a constant rate, then θ = ω.t where ω = the angular frequency.
Figure to read from T/4 to 5T/4 to sync with the applet graph
below
Note:
• The maximum magnitude of the e.m.f. is equal to when the coil is parallel to the field B ( vector A is 90 deg to notes θ) which in the applet case are angle θ = 0 and 180 deg but the notes θ = 90 and 270 deg
changes :
1added equations for flux from http://www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw/ntnujava/index.php?topic=915.02 made some adjustment to the equations to reflect the flux correctly http://www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw/ntnujava/index.php?topic=915.msg4942#msg4942
3 remove DC motor parts
4 added AC generator parts
5 adapted from the way the loop coil in drawn http://www.compadre.org/OSP/items/detail.cfm?ID=9218&Attached=1
6 adapted useful components of http://www.compadre.org/OSP/items/detail.cfm?ID=9218&Attached=1 like plot and the calculation for flux and current
7 readapt to the magnetic field B in z direction which took a lot of effort to rethink the physics laws
8 adjusted the equations to reflect the physics for my model
9 added new equation flux = NBA*cos(B&A) instead of the older equation
10 added N number of loops slider
11 added lengthx and lengthz slider to promote inquiry learning of physics phenomena
12 added the ammeter group from http://www.compadre.org/OSP/items/detail.cfm?ID=9218&Attached=1
13 customized the particles to work even with lengthx and lengthz
14 current particles motion particles velocity now are smaller for cases for N=7
15 modified equation to reflect the equation of induced emf = N*B*A* cos(B&A) = IR
16 direction of motion obeys v = omegas*lengthz/2;
17 particles in ABCD are good with proper initialization
18 moved the handle group to the other side to simulate handle being cranked
19 added resistor into the simulation
20 adding description
21 adding exercises
17 june 2010
22 read with error in E:\EJS_4.3.0_100613\EJS_4.3.0 but no error in E:\EJS_4.2.7_100314\EJS_4.2.7\
23 continuing improvement on EJS_4.2.7_100314\EJS_4.2.7\
24 made the connection between rotating handle and coil match the length of the coil and lengthx changes
25 made width = 600 to fit blog post http://sgeducation.blogspot.com/2010/06/ejsopensourcealternatingcurrent.html
26 made some color scheme changes to background
to do
add flux,emf vs angle to plot
add visualization of flux on main drawing http://www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw/ntnujava/index.php?topic=915.msg3437#msg3437